ERC 721

This set of interfaces, contracts, and utilities are all related to the ERC721 Non-Fungible Token Standard.

For a walkthrough on how to create an ERC721 token read our ERC721 guide.

The EIP consists of three interfaces, found here as IERC721, IERC721Metadata, and IERC721Enumerable. Only the first one is required in a contract to be ERC721 compliant. However, all three are implemented in ERC721.

Additionally, IERC721Receiver can be used to prevent tokens from becoming forever locked in contracts. Imagine sending an in-game item to an exchange address that can’t send it back!. When using safeTransferFrom, the token contract checks to see that the receiver is an IERC721Receiver, which implies that it knows how to handle ERC721 tokens. If you’re writing a contract that needs to receive ERC721 tokens, you’ll want to include this interface.

Additionally there are multiple custom extensions, including:

Core

IERC721

Required interface of an ERC721 compliant contract.

balanceOf(address owner) → uint256 balance external

Returns the number of tokens in owner's account.

ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) → address owner external

Returns the owner of the tokenId token.

Requirements:

  • tokenId must exist.

safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) external

Safely transfers tokenId token from from to to, checking first that contract recipients are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.

Requirements:

  • from cannot be the zero address.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

  • tokenId token must exist and be owned by from.

  • If the caller is not from, it must be have been allowed to move this token by either approve or setApprovalForAll.

  • If to refers to a smart contract, it must implement IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received, which is called upon a safe transfer.

Emits a Transfer event.

transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) external

Transfers tokenId token from from to to.

Usage of this method is discouraged, use safeTransferFrom whenever possible.

Requirements:

  • from cannot be the zero address.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

  • tokenId token must be owned by from.

  • If the caller is not from, it must be approved to move this token by either approve or setApprovalForAll.

Emits a Transfer event.

approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external

Gives permission to to to transfer tokenId token to another account. The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.

Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the zero address clears previous approvals.

Requirements:

  • The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.

  • tokenId must exist.

Emits an Approval event.

getApproved(uint256 tokenId) → address operator external

Returns the account approved for tokenId token.

Requirements:

  • tokenId must exist.

setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external

Approve or remove operator as an operator for the caller. Operators can call transferFrom or safeTransferFrom for any token owned by the caller.

Requirements:

  • The operator cannot be the caller.

Emits an ApprovalForAll event.

isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) → bool external

Returns if the operator is allowed to manage all of the assets of owner.

safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId, bytes data) external

Safely transfers tokenId token from from to to.

Requirements:

  • from cannot be the zero address.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

  • tokenId token must exist and be owned by from.

  • If the caller is not from, it must be approved to move this token by either approve or setApprovalForAll.

  • If to refers to a smart contract, it must implement IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received, which is called upon a safe transfer.

Emits a Transfer event.

Transfer(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) event

Emitted when tokenId token is transfered from from to to.

Approval(address owner, address approved, uint256 tokenId) event

Emitted when owner enables approved to manage the tokenId token.

ApprovalForAll(address owner, address operator, bool approved) event

Emitted when owner enables or disables (approved) operator to manage all of its assets.

IERC721Metadata

name() → string external

Returns the token collection name.

symbol() → string external

Returns the token collection symbol.

tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) → string external

Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for tokenId token.

IERC721Enumerable

totalSupply() → uint256 external

Returns the total amount of tokens stored by the contract.

tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address owner, uint256 index) → uint256 tokenId external

Returns a token ID owned by owner at a given index of its token list. Use along with balanceOf to enumerate all of owner's tokens.

tokenByIndex(uint256 index) → uint256 external

Returns a token ID at a given index of all the tokens stored by the contract. Use along with totalSupply to enumerate all tokens.

ERC721

constructor(string name, string symbol) public

Initializes the contract by setting a name and a symbol to the token collection.

balanceOf(address owner) → uint256 public

ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) → address public

name() → string public

symbol() → string public

tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) → string public

baseURI() → string public

Returns the base URI set via _setBaseURI. This will be automatically added as a prefix in tokenURI to each token’s URI, or to the token ID if no specific URI is set for that token ID.

tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address owner, uint256 index) → uint256 public

totalSupply() → uint256 public

tokenByIndex(uint256 index) → uint256 public

approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public

getApproved(uint256 tokenId) → address public

setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public

isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) → bool public

transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) public

safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) public

safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId, bytes _data) public

_safeTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId, bytes _data) internal

Safely transfers tokenId token from from to to, checking first that contract recipients are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.

_data is additional data, it has no specified format and it is sent in call to to.

This internal function is equivalent to safeTransferFrom, and can be used to e.g. implement alternative mecanisms to perform token transfer, such as signature-based.

Requirements:

  • from cannot be the zero address.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

  • tokenId token must exist and be owned by from.

  • If to refers to a smart contract, it must implement IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received, which is called upon a safe transfer.

Emits a Transfer event.

_exists(uint256 tokenId) → bool internal

Returns whether tokenId exists.

Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via approve or setApprovalForAll.

Tokens start existing when they are minted (_mint), and stop existing when they are burned (_burn).

_isApprovedOrOwner(address spender, uint256 tokenId) → bool internal

Returns whether spender is allowed to manage tokenId.

Requirements:

  • tokenId must exist.

_safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal

Safely mints tokenId and transfers it to to.

Requirements: d* - tokenId must not exist. - If to refers to a smart contract, it must implement IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received, which is called upon a safe transfer.

Emits a Transfer event.

_safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId, bytes _data) internal

Same as _safeMint, with an additional data parameter which is forwarded in IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received to contract recipients.

_mint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal

Mints tokenId and transfers it to to.

Usage of this method is discouraged, use _safeMint whenever possible

Requirements:

  • tokenId must not exist.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

Emits a Transfer event.

_burn(uint256 tokenId) internal

Destroys tokenId. The approval is cleared when the token is burned.

Requirements:

  • tokenId must exist.

Emits a Transfer event.

_transfer(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) internal

Transfers tokenId from from to to. As opposed to transferFrom, this imposes no restrictions on msg.sender.

Requirements:

  • to cannot be the zero address.

  • tokenId token must be owned by from.

Emits a Transfer event.

_setTokenURI(uint256 tokenId, string _tokenURI) internal

Sets _tokenURI as the tokenURI of tokenId.

Requirements:

  • tokenId must exist.

_setBaseURI(string baseURI_) internal

Internal function to set the base URI for all token IDs. It is automatically added as a prefix to the value returned in tokenURI, or to the token ID if tokenURI is empty.

_beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) internal

Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting and burning.

Calling conditions:

  • When from and to are both non-zero, from's tokenId will be transferred to to.

  • When from is zero, tokenId will be minted for to.

  • When to is zero, from's tokenId will be burned.

  • from cannot be the zero address.

  • to cannot be the zero address.

To learn more about hooks, head to Using Hooks.

IERC721Receiver

Interface for any contract that wants to support safeTransfers from ERC721 asset contracts.

onERC721Received(address operator, address from, uint256 tokenId, bytes data) → bytes4 external

Whenever an IERC721 tokenId token is transferred to this contract via IERC721.safeTransferFrom by operator from from, this function is called.

It must return its Solidity selector to confirm the token transfer. If any other value is returned or the interface is not implemented by the recipient, the transfer will be reverted.

The selector can be obtained in Solidity with IERC721.onERC721Received.selector.

Extensions

Convenience

ERC721Holder

Implementation of the IERC721Receiver interface.

Accepts all token transfers. Make sure the contract is able to use its token with IERC721.safeTransferFrom, IERC721.approve or IERC721.setApprovalForAll.

onERC721Received(address, address, uint256, bytes) → bytes4 public

Always returns IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received.selector.