Governance

This document is better viewed at https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/api/governance

This directory includes primitives for on-chain governance. We currently only offer the TimelockController contract, that can be used as a component in a governance systems to introduce a delay between a proposal and its execution.

Timelock

TimelockController

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/governance/TimelockController.sol";

Contract module which acts as a timelocked controller. When set as the owner of an Ownable smart contract, it enforces a timelock on all onlyOwner maintenance operations. This gives time for users of the controlled contract to exit before a potentially dangerous maintenance operation is applied.

By default, this contract is self administered, meaning administration tasks have to go through the timelock process. The proposer (resp executor) role is in charge of proposing (resp executing) operations. A common use case is to position this TimelockController as the owner of a smart contract, with a multisig or a DAO as the sole proposer.

Available since v3.3.

onlyRoleOrOpenRole(bytes32 role) modifier

Modifier to make a function callable only by a certain role. In addition to checking the sender’s role, address(0) 's role is also considered. Granting a role to address(0) is equivalent to enabling this role for everyone.

constructor(uint256 minDelay, address[] proposers, address[] executors) public

Initializes the contract with a given minDelay.

receive() external

Contract might receive/hold ETH as part of the maintenance process.

isOperation(bytes32 id) → bool pending public

Returns whether an id correspond to a registered operation. This includes both Pending, Ready and Done operations.

isOperationPending(bytes32 id) → bool pending public

Returns whether an operation is pending or not.

isOperationReady(bytes32 id) → bool ready public

Returns whether an operation is ready or not.

isOperationDone(bytes32 id) → bool done public

Returns whether an operation is done or not.

getTimestamp(bytes32 id) → uint256 timestamp public

Returns the timestamp at with an operation becomes ready (0 for unset operations, 1 for done operations).

getMinDelay() → uint256 duration public

Returns the minimum delay for an operation to become valid.

This value can be changed by executing an operation that calls updateDelay.

hashOperation(address target, uint256 value, bytes data, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt) → bytes32 hash public

Returns the identifier of an operation containing a single transaction.

hashOperationBatch(address[] targets, uint256[] values, bytes[] datas, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt) → bytes32 hash public

Returns the identifier of an operation containing a batch of transactions.

schedule(address target, uint256 value, bytes data, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt, uint256 delay) public

Schedule an operation containing a single transaction.

Emits a CallScheduled event.

Requirements:

  • the caller must have the 'proposer' role.

scheduleBatch(address[] targets, uint256[] values, bytes[] datas, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt, uint256 delay) public

Schedule an operation containing a batch of transactions.

Emits one CallScheduled event per transaction in the batch.

Requirements:

  • the caller must have the 'proposer' role.

cancel(bytes32 id) public

Cancel an operation.

Requirements:

  • the caller must have the 'proposer' role.

execute(address target, uint256 value, bytes data, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt) public

Execute an (ready) operation containing a single transaction.

Emits a CallExecuted event.

Requirements:

  • the caller must have the 'executor' role.

executeBatch(address[] targets, uint256[] values, bytes[] datas, bytes32 predecessor, bytes32 salt) public

Execute an (ready) operation containing a batch of transactions.

Emits one CallExecuted event per transaction in the batch.

Requirements:

  • the caller must have the 'executor' role.

updateDelay(uint256 newDelay) external

Changes the minimum timelock duration for future operations.

Emits a MinDelayChange event.

Requirements:

  • the caller must be the timelock itself. This can only be achieved by scheduling and later executing an operation where the timelock is the target and the data is the ABI-encoded call to this function.

CallScheduled(bytes32 id, uint256 index, address target, uint256 value, bytes data, bytes32 predecessor, uint256 delay) event

Emitted when a call is scheduled as part of operation id.

CallExecuted(bytes32 id, uint256 index, address target, uint256 value, bytes data) event

Emitted when a call is performed as part of operation id.

Cancelled(bytes32 id) event

Emitted when operation id is cancelled.

MinDelayChange(uint256 oldDuration, uint256 newDuration) event

Emitted when the minimum delay for future operations is modified.

Terminology

  • Operation: A transaction (or a set of transactions) that is the subject of the timelock. It has to be scheduled by a proposer and executed by an executor. The timelock enforces a minimum delay between the proposition and the execution (see operation lifecycle). If the operation contains multiple transactions (batch mode), they are executed atomically. Operations are identified by the hash of their content.

  • Operation status:

    • Unset: An operation that is not part of the timelock mechanism.

    • Pending: An operation that has been scheduled, before the timer expires.

    • Ready: An operation that has been scheduled, after the timer expires.

    • Done: An operation that has been executed.

  • Predecessor: An (optional) dependency between operations. An operation can depend on another operation (its predecessor), forcing the execution order of these two operations.

  • Role:

    • Proposer: An address (smart contract or EOA) that is in charge of scheduling (and cancelling) operations.

    • Executor: An address (smart contract or EOA) that is in charge of executing operations.

Operation structure

Operation executed by the TimelockControler can contain one or multiple subsequent calls. Depending on whether you need to multiple calls to be executed atomically, you can either use simple or batched operations.

Both operations contain:

  • Target, the address of the smart contract that the timelock should operate on.

  • Value, in wei, that should be sent with the transaction. Most of the time this will be 0. Ether can be deposited before-end or passed along when executing the transaction.

  • Data, containing the encoded function selector and parameters of the call. This can be produced using a number of tools. For example, a maintenance operation granting role ROLE to ACCOUNT can be encode using web3js as follows:

const data = timelock.contract.methods.grantRole(ROLE, ACCOUNT).encodeABI()
  • Predecessor, that specifies a dependency between operations. This dependency is optional. Use bytes32(0) if the operation does not have any dependency.

  • Salt, used to disambiguate two otherwise identical operations. This can be any random value.

In the case of batched operations, target, value and data are specified as arrays, which must be of the same length.

Operation lifecycle

Timelocked operations are identified by a unique id (their hash) and follow a specific lifecycle:

UnsetPendingPending + ReadyDone

  • By calling schedule (or scheduleBatch), a proposer moves the operation from the Unset to the Pending state. This starts a timer that must be longer than the minimum delay. The timer expires at a timestamp accessible through the getTimestamp method.

  • Once the timer expires, the operation automatically gets the Ready state. At this point, it can be executed.

  • By calling execute (or executeBatch), an executor triggers the operation’s underlying transactions and moves it to the Done state. If the operation has a predecessor, it has to be in the Done state for this transition to succeed.

  • cancel allows proposers to cancel any Pending operation. This resets the operation to the Unset state. It is thus possible for a proposer to re-schedule an operation that has been cancelled. In this case, the timer restarts when the operation is re-scheduled.

Operations status can be queried using the functions:

Roles

Admin

The admins are in charge of managing proposers and executors. For the timelock to be self-governed, this role should only be given to the timelock itself. Upon deployment, both the timelock and the deployer have this role. After further configuration and testing, the deployer can renounce this role such that all further maintenance operations have to go through the timelock process.

This role is identified by the TIMELOCK_ADMIN_ROLE value: 0x5f58e3a2316349923ce3780f8d587db2d72378aed66a8261c916544fa6846ca5

Proposer

The proposers are in charge of scheduling (and cancelling) operations. This is a critical role, that should be given to governing entities. This could be an EOA, a multisig, or a DAO.

Proposer fight: Having multiple proposers, while providing redundancy in case one becomes unavailable, can be dangerous. As proposer have their say on all operations, they could cancel operations they disagree with, including operations to remove them for the proposers.

This role is identified by the PROPOSER_ROLE value: 0xb09aa5aeb3702cfd50b6b62bc4532604938f21248a27a1d5ca736082b6819cc1

Executor

The executors are in charge of executing the operations scheduled by the proposers once the timelock expires. Logic dictates that multisig or DAO that are proposers should also be executors in order to guarantee operations that have been scheduled will eventually be executed. However, having additional executor can reduce the cost (the executing transaction does not require validation by the multisig or DAO that proposed it), while ensuring whoever is in charge of execution cannot trigger actions that have not been scheduled by the proposers.

This role is identified by the EXECUTOR_ROLE value: 0xd8aa0f3194971a2a116679f7c2090f6939c8d4e01a2a8d7e41d55e5351469e63

A live contract without at least one proposer and one executor is locked. Make sure these roles are filled by reliable entities before the deployer renounces its administrative rights in favour of the timelock contract itself. See the AccessControl documentation to learn more about role management.